We use the synergy of raw honey, propolis, licorice and Usnea (a lichen) in this spray for maximum effectiveness. Propolis is a resin that honey bees gather from pine and poplar trees, and is used to coat the inside of the bee hive and protect if from intruders. Proprietary blend: Apitherapy raw honey, propolis, licorice and Usnea lichen in pure grain alcohol & distilled water. Suggested use: Use one spray as needed 2 - 5 times per day. Consult health care professional regarding use during pregnancy or lactation.